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Astronauts set the camera exposure for the foreground, which is much much brighter than the background. Try it out with a camera sometime at night, and set it for a streetlight versus stars.
Stars could be visible to an astronaut during the lunar day since the human eye has a very broad dynamic range between light and dark, in some circumstances. They would definitely be visible to an astronaut lying on his back staring at the sky without the bright lunar plains in his field of view.
Unfortunately NASA didn’t have the budget for the lunar explorers to make lunar regolith angels, but you can be sure that someone alive today will be the first to do it!